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TypeScript in Angular - Use generic class with Service 🧋

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TypeScript in Angular - Use generic class with Service 🧋

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LuuVinhLoc
·Aug 24, 2022·

2 min read

Story 🏕️

When we want to use Service's property/method with a special types each component. Basiclly, we want to reuse a logic inside Service with type-checking at outside of that Service.

For example, in ExampleService:

import { Type } from '@angular/core';

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
export default class ExampleService {
  /**
   * Gets last component.
   */
  get lastComponent(): Type<any> | undefined {
    // TODO: do something
    return this.loverlyComponents[this.loverlyComponents.length - 1];
  }
}

// ...
export class TheNextComponent {
  constructor(private exampleService: ExampleService) {}

  doSomethings() {
    if (!this.exampleService.lastComponent) return;

    // when you hover on `this.exampleService.lastComponent` by mouse,
    // `Type<any>` is showed up.
    console.log(this.exampleService.lastComponent);
  }
}

We don't know exactly what type of last component, what we surely know beacause we used that component recently. So, we can not use last component safely, beacause it's type is any.

Solution ✨

Use generic class with service:

@Injectable({ providedIn: 'root' })
export default class ExampleService<TLastComponent> {
  /**
   * Gets last component.
   */
  get lastComponent(): TLastComponent | undefined {
    // TODO: do something
    return this.loverlyComponents[this.loverlyComponents.length - 1];
  }
}

And when inject it into component, we surely know what component is lastComponent:

export class TheNextComponent {
  constructor(
    private exampleService: ExampleService<TheBlueComponent>
  ) {}

  doSomethings() {
    if (!this.exampleService.lastComponent) return;

    // when you hover on `this.exampleService.lastComponent` by mouse,
    // `TheBlueComponent` is showed up.
    console.log(this.exampleService.lastComponent);

    // we can use `lastComponent`'s method safely now ✨
    this.exampleService.lastComponent.goGreen();
  }
}

Question?

If another component is also injected by ExampleService (same instance above) but not TheBlueComponent, does that affect dependency injection ?

No, that is only affect type-checking by TypeScript only.

 
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